Judges are responsible for:
- Conducting protest and redress hearings when there may have been a breach of the rules.
- Conducting arbitration hearings.
- Enforce Rule 42 (Propulsion) on the water at fleet racing events.
- Consult with organizers and race officers ahead of events to review race documents and procedures.
A complete description of the responsibilities and functions of the Judges Committee and the Regional Administrative Judges (RAJ), as well as qualifications for US Sailing Club Judges, Judges, National Judges and International Judges, is available in both the Continuing Education and Judges Program documentation using links provided at the bottom of this page.
Personal Attributes of Race Officials
Because race officials play an important role in ensuring the fairness and quality of competition, racing sailors and US Sailing expect a high level of personal integrity and judicial temperament of certified race officials. To learn more about standards of personal conduct for race officials and how they are evaluated, please click on the button below.
Before the US Sailing Judges Program was created in 1977, a set of criteria was established for certification as a US Sailing Judge, which included experience in racing and race management, service on protest committees and a high standard of personal integrity. Application was by resume and supported by personal references. RAJs handled applications in their geographic area.
In 1995, the US Sailing Board of Directors asked the Judge Committee to improve the quality of the Judges Program, to review the procedures used in appointing and reappointing judges and to consider training and testing. In 1998 the Judge Committee introduced a new set of standards for the US Sailing Judges Program. These standards require experience in racing, race management, and protest committee work as well as attending a workshop and passing a written open-book test. The seminar and test must be taken every four years.
Standards of personal behavior are more explicit than they have been in the past. Those seeking initial certification or renewal as a US Sailing Judge must meet the high standards of integrity, fairness and judicial temperament found in The Judges Manual. Certified or not, all judges serving on protest committees should meet these standards.
When a protest committee is on duty afloat or ashore and the chair is a US Sailing Judge, they may display the US Sailing Judges Flag.
The standards also recognized that individuals might engage in different judging paths based on their experience and abilities. The Judges Program established qualifications and standards for Club Judges, Judges, National Judges, and the US Sailing procedure for nominating ISAF International Judges. The qualifications required for certification for each of these different paths are described in the US Sailing Judge Certification Program Requirements.
Judges Committee & Regional Administrative Judges
The Judges Committee develops supports and certifies judges within the US.
The Judges Committee also maintains the training and testing programs for certification; assists sailing organizations in obtaining qualified judges for events; provides support and advice on the roles and conduct of judges at US Sailing events; investigates complaints against judges; and submits candidates for approval by the Board as nominees for World Sailing International Judges.
Regional Administrative Judges (RAJs) are the judge administrators in each of US Sailing’s Areas.
The RAJ is responsible for recruiting, encouraging and guiding members who wish to take a judge course, become certified, recertified or upgrade their certification level. RAJs also help organizers recruit judges for their events, place judges at events, schedule training seminars and answer judging and protest-related questions from members.
For more information about judges and judging, please contact your RAJ, who is identified by his or her Area in the table below.
judge guidelines & documents
- US Sailing Judge Certification Requirements
- 2021-2024 US Prescriptions to The Racing Rules of Sailing
- Appendices KG & LG - NoR and SI Guides & Templates
- The Judges' Manual for 2021-2024 – a free pdf for US Sailing members
- Guidelines for Online Hearings – guidance from the US Sailing Judges Committee on conducting online hearings
- Model boats for protest and redress hearings - download, print and cut out paper boats
- Standard Wording for PC Decisions – guidelines for ensuring conclusions are derived from facts found
- Continuing Education Events and CEUs Table – a table defining the continuing education values for educational events
- Regional Administrative Judge Guidelines - 1st Edition - guidance for the members of the Judges’ Committee
- Around the Race Course-.pdf format
- Around the Race Course-Powerpoint with motion graphics
- Appeals Committee Credit - Judges who serve on Association Appeals Committees or the US Sailing Appeals Committee can receive Continuing Education credit (20 units per appeal) for appeals they participate in deciding. Please read about recording SOARS credit for AAC or AC service.
Useful Protest Committee Documents
- Hearing Request Form (former protest form)
The US Sailing 2021-2024 Hearing Request Form replaces the front page of the former Protest Form and can be used by competitors to file protests, redress requests, and requests to reopen a hearing.
- Hearing Decision Form
The US Sailing 2021-2024 Hearing Decision Form replaces the back page of the former Protest Form and is for use only by protest committees for rendering decisions on protests, requests for redress and requests to reopen.
- Protest Worksheet (Envelope Cover)
- Protest Filing Deadline
- Hearing Procedure Checklist
- Alternative Penalty Acknowledge Table (Short Form)
- Alternative Penalty Acknowledge Form (long form)
- Arbitration Resolution Form
- Hearing Schedule Table
- Hearing Results Table
- Notice of Request for Redress Hearing
- Hearing Schedule and Results Table
- Protest Committee Report to Scorers
- Rule 42 Protests – 1 Protest per Line
- Rule 42 Protests – 1 Competitor per Line
- Rule 42 Log Booklet – for one-sided copies
- Rule 42 Log Booklet – for double-sided copies
- WS Misconduct Hearing Checklist - Standard
- WS Misconduct Hearing Checklist - Presenter
- CAS Hearing Checklist
- Combined set of all Reports in one Document (Has common header and footer for use in customizing for one event)
Useful Event Checklists
The Judges Committee and the Judges Education, Training and Testing Subcommittee (JETTS) provide the following checklists for members of a Protest Committee. These correspond to and, in some cases supplement, the checklists found in The Judges' Manual for 2017-2020. Additionally, these are utilized for certain exercises during Judge Seminars. Appendix M of The Racing Rules of Sailing is an additional resource for Judges looking for such type of tools. JETTS will periodically collect and add additional checklists, as appropriate.
Judges Committee Meeting Minutes